This takes you to the Census Bureau's homepage.
Gateway to 2010 Decennial Census and other recent data.
Frequently-requested state and county data.
New survey program, covering data previously available only in decennial counts.
This link takes you to Annie's listing of the University Library's collection of reprinted volumes of the first ten decennial censuses (1790-1880).
Printed and online volumes from the complete head-count conducted every ten years.
This commercial product contains a searchable database of personal names in the decennial census from 1790 to 1930 and includes images of the original census forms. An example.
"First comprehensive atlas of population and housing produced by the Census Bureau since the 1920s... about 300 pages long and containing almost 800 maps. Data from decennial censuses prior to 2000 support nearly 150 maps and figures."
University of Michigan product provides the exact wording of Census questions since 1790, arranged by year, with a comparison to the question asked in 2000.
Ohio State University Libraries provide this valuable guide (with links) to various Census population reports over the years.
Online tools for "workforce statistics at the state, county, metro, and workforce investment area levels."
Integrated Public Use Microdata Series project (University of Minnesota), "dedicated to collecting and distributing United States census data."
Create your own customized table, using dozens of variables from CPS data.