Washington and Lee University

Washington and Lee University Washington and Lee University The University Library

Journalism Resources -- Issues and Research

Reliable research materials.

You can search the contents of most of over 170 of these sites with this Google-based search engine.

American Editor

Online edition of the magazine of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE).

American Journalism Review

"National magazine that covers all aspects of print, television, radio and online media... examines how the media cover specific stories and broader coverage trends."

Annenberg Public Policy Center

The media and public policy issues.

Annual Surveys of Journalism and Mass Communication Graduates

"Monitors the employment rates and salaries of graduates of journalism and mass communication programs in the United States in the year after graduation..."  (University of Georgia)

Article 19

International advocate for freedom of expression.

Audit Bureau of Circulation

This is a link to the ABC's collection of free data products on newspaper circulation, etc.

Berkman Center for Internet and Society

Harvard-based research center, with a mission to "explore and understand cyberspace; to study its development, dynamics, norms, and standards; and to assess the need or lack thereof for laws and sanctions."   Publisher of the Citizen Media Law Project's Legal Guide and affiliated with the Citizen Media Law Project.

Best of Photojournalism

Annual award-winners, from the National Press Photographers Association.

Broadcasting and Cable Magazine

Web site for venerable magazine provides "breaking news, daily updates, blogs, podcasts, videos, user generated content, early previews of the print edition, a searchable database and hundreds of industry links."


Web site of the Reynolds National Center for Business Journalism.  Includes a very active business journalism blog and the Business Glossary.

Canadian Media Research Consortium

University-supported research on mass media.

Center for Investigative Reporting

Nonprofit organization which invests in "promising stories at their earliest stages to give them a chance in the news marketplace, producing major multimedia investigative projects, and promoting investigations to maximize their impact."

Center for Media and Democracy

Organization "investigating and exposing public relations spin and propaganda, and by promoting media literacy and citizen journalism."   Includes quarterly journal PRWatch.

Center for Media Literacy

Encourages critical thinking about the media.

Center for Public Integrity

Nonprofit organization dedicated to producing original, responsible investigative journalism on issues of public concern... committed to transparent and comprehensive reporting both in the United States and around the world."  Includes Well Connected database of media ownership.  (Use the "In Your State" and "Media Tracker" options (right side of page) for information about media ownership, influence, and regulation.)

Center on Media and Child Health

Dedicated to "understanding and responding to the effects of media on the physical, mental, and social health of children through research, translation, and education."   (Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, harvard School of Public Health)

A Citizen's Guide on Using the Freedom of Information Act and The Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records

The U.S. Congress periodically publishes this guide.


Energy-related news coverage.

Codes of Ethics Online

See the Media and Communications options.

Columbia Journalism Review

This is CJR.org , the Web site of one of the most respected resources for media criticism and analysis.  (Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism)

Committee of Concerned Journalists

"Consortium of journalists, publishers, owners and academics worried about the future of the profession.  To secure journalism's future, the group believes that journalists from all media, geography, rank and generation must be clear about what sets our profession apart from other endeavors."

See also Journalism.org

Communication and Mass Media Complete

"Article database" offering access to a wide range of publications in mass media, communications, and related fields, including over 600 journals.   (W&L subscription)


Daily compilation of media criticism and analysis.


"News and resource site that focuses on how the Internet, convergence and new technologies are changing the media."  Includes Cyber Journalist List, a comprehensive list of blogs produced by journalists.

Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma

Resources for journalists who cover violence.

Desperately Seeking Ethics: A Guide to Media Conduct

2003 volume containing contributed essays on case studies.

Early American Newspapers on Microfilm -- Virginia and Other States

Lists of early American newspapers available on microfilm in Leyburn Library.


Media news, etc. from " a community of young magazine editors and magazine-editor wannabes who want to learn more about the industry so we can fulfill our dreams of landing top editing and writing positions in the the magazine industry."

News and discussion from " a community of young magazine editors and magazine-editor wannabes who want to learn more about the industry so we can fulfill our dreams of landing top editing and writing positions in the the magazine industry.

Editor and Publisher Online

Web site of weekly magazine "covering all aspects of the North American newspaper industry, including business, newsroom, advertising, circulation, marketing, technology, online and syndicates. "


Funded by the Knight Foundation, this site is "geared toward those who teach, study and practice editing" and includes great resources for writing and researching.  See the "Tools of the Trade" options.


Developing "encyclopedia of the future of news," from the Nieman Journalism Lab at Harvard University.

Ethical Journalism; A Handbook of Values and Practices for the News and Editorial Departments

From the New York Times.

EthicNet; Databank for European Codes of Journalism Ethics

Provided by the University of Tampere in Finland, this is a compilation of links to codes of ethics for journalists in over 35 European countries, all translated into English.

Ethics Codes

Collection of ethics guidelines from various news organizations worldwide.   From the Project for Excellence in Journalism.

European Journalism Centre

Coverage of professional issues from a European perspective.  The Media Landscape compilation contains an overview of the media in each European country and EUFeeds provides links to over 300 European newspapers.

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR)

National media watch group works "to invigorate the First Amendment by advocating for greater diversity in the press and by scrutinizing media practices that marginalize public interest, minority and dissenting viewpoints."

First Amendment Center -- Press

A project of the Freedom Forum, based at Vanderbilt University.

First Amendment Handbook

Guide for journalists, from the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press.

Free Press

"National, nonpartisan organization working to reform the media. Through education, organizing and advocacy, we promote diverse and independent media ownership, strong public media, and universal access to communications."

Freedom Forum

Freedom Forum is a group which champions freedom of the press under the First Amendment. This information service contains a significant amount of full-text info (journal articles, press releases, etc.).

Gender Report

Subtitled A Closer Look at Gender and Online News.

George Polk Awards

Highly-respected annual prizes (1948- ), "one of America's most coveted journalism honors."   Recent entries include links to works.   (Long Island University)

Global Media Monitoring Project

Funded by several international agencies, this organization describes itself as "the largest and longest longitudinal study on the representation of women in the world’s media.  It is also the largest advocacy initiative in the world on changing the representation of women in the media."  Publisher of Who Makes the News? reports.

Global Voices

Access to and translations of accounts written by "bridge bloggers" -- people who are talking about their country or region to a global audience. From the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at the Harvard Law School.

Health News Review

A multi-disciplinary team of reviewers from journalism, medicine, health services research and public health assesses the quality of health- or medical-related news stories, using a standardized rating system.

History of Business Journalism

A work-in-progress, from the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill). Be sure to check the "Resources" option, at the bottom of the screen.

How to File An FOIA Request

Step-by-step guide, with links to resources, from the First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University.

Institute for War and Peace Reporting

News and analysis on the Balkans, Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union, with an emphasis on issues relating to media coverage.

Inter American Press Association

Non-profit organization dedicated to defending freedom of expression and of the press throughout the Americas.

International Broadcasting Bureau

Agency which oversees U.S. Federal Government international broadcasting operations (Voice of America, etc.).

International Center for Journalists

Support for international journalists, including information in the International Journalists' Network database.

International Center for Media and the Public Agenda

University of Maryland center focusing on "the study of global media and public policy; its projects investigate media’s roles and responsibilities in public consideration of political issues."

International Consortium of Investigative Journalists

A project of the Center for Public Integrity, focusing on "issues that do not stop at water's edge."

International Freedom of Information Exchange

International organization supporting freedom of speech and press. Includes news reports.

International Press Institute

"Global network of editors, media executives and leading journalists, is dedicated to the furtherance and safeguarding of press freedom, the protection of freedom of opinion and expression, the promotion of the free flow of news and information, and the improvement of the practices of journalism."

Investigative Reporting Workshop

A project of the School of Communication at American University, devoted to "conducting significant, multimedia investigative journalism projects on a national and international scale" and researching new models.

Iowa Guide; Scholarly Journals in Mass Communications and Related Fields

Information on over 125 important journals.

J-Lab -- The Institute for Interactive Journalism

Emphasis on helping media and citizens develop new ways use innovative computer technologies to discuss public issues.


Database of "ideas, strategies and techniques" for practicing journalists and students.  Use the "View by Topic" drop-down menu on the right side of the page to see lists for "Interviewing," "Statistics and Numbers," and more.  From the Committee of Concerned Journalists.

Joan Shorenstein Center for Press, Politics, and Public Policy

From the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Journalism Center on Children and Families

University of Maryland site focusing on such issues as child neglect/abuse and family-related public policy.

Journalist's Guide to the Federal Courts

Overview of the Federal Court system, including District Courts, Bankruptcy Courts, and Appellate Courts.

Journalist's Privilege

Two recent reports from the U.S. Congressional Research Service:  Overview of the Law and Legislation (2008) and State Shield Statutes (2007).

Journalist's Toolbox

Ever-growing collection of research resources, compiled by the American Press Institute.

Kaiser Family Foundation -- Study of Entertainment Media and Public Health

The KFF is concerned with health policy in the U.S., and this particular program of theirs is concerned with the inclusion of health-related information in the entertainment media.

Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas

News and other information on journalism in the Americas. (University of Texas)

Knight Citizen News Network

"Self-help portal that guides both ordinary citizens and traditional journalists in launching and responsibly operating community news and information sites."  Includes the Citizen Journalist’s Guide To Open Government.

Knight Digital Media Center

"Our goal is to provide the foundation of technical skills and story-telling techniques required by New Media platforms."  (University of California--Berkeley)

Knight Science Journalism Tracker

"A broad sampling of the past day's science news and, where possible, of news releases or other news tips related to publication of science news in the general circulation news media." From the Knight Science Journalism Fellowship Program at MIT.


Global news coverage, including the Mosaic Middle East news service. Lots of streaming video.

Local TV News Media Project

Searchable database of over 10,600 individual local TV news programs from across the U.S. Each story is viewable in its entirety. (University of Delaware)

Maynard Institute for Journalism Education

Supports diversity in American journalism.

Media and American Courts

E-book "guide to cases, personalities, and controversies that have redefined the court/press relationship in the past century."


News on the media.


News and analysis about mass media.

Media Ethics Online

Web site of independent magazine "serving mass communication ethics."

Media Management Center

"Executive education and research to address the issues and needs of media organizations worldwide... affiliated with the Kellogg School of Management and the Medill School at Northwestern University."

Media Matters

Policy statements and other documents in the American Academy of Pediatrics' "national media education campaign" on topics relating to children and media.


"Dedicated to monitoring and debating issues of broadcasting policy, regulation and independence in Europe and beyond."    (Open Society Institute)

Media Policy Initiative

Nonpartisan group (a program of the New America Foundation) "formulates policy and regulatory reforms to foster the development of a healthy media that satisfies the needs of democracy in the 21st century."  Includes compilation of fact-checking programs.


Data bank of scientific information for journalists, along with network of scientists and others wiiling to field scientific inquiries from journalists.

Monday Note

France-based blog on "media, tech, and business models."

National Freedom of Information Coalition

Includes their comilation of State and National Freedom of Information Resources.

National Institute on Media and the Family

The Mediawise site focuses on the effects of media on children.

National Public Radio

Includes On the Media, a weekly show examining"the process of 'making media,' especially news media."

New England Center for Investigative Reporting

"The first non-profit, university-based investigative reporting collaborative in the country focused on local and regional issues."   (Boston University)

News Sites

Leyburn Library list of high-quality news Web sources.


"Online resource center for television and radio newsrooms, focused on improving journalism."

Newspaper Audience Database

From the Newspaper Association of America.  Free data compilations are on the left.

Newspaper Codes of Ethics

From American Society of Newspaper Editors.


Over 2,000 self-instructional exercises on grammar, usage, spelling, and journalistic style.


Created by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, this is a daily "Web magazine" about media coverage of events and issues.

Nieman Journalism Lab

Project of the Nieman Foundation at Harvard University, focusing on the future of journalism.

Nieman Reports

From the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University.

Occupation Outlook Handbook

Here is the "Media and Communications-Related Occupations" section from the latest edition of this biennial publication from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

On the Media

National Public Radio series "explores how the media 'sausage' is made, casts an incisive eye on fluctuations in the marketplace of ideas, and examines threats to the freedom of information and expression in America and abroad."

Online Journalism Review

Weekly journalism criticism, from the University of Southern California.


"Up-to-date news, links to valuable resources, and opportunities to exchange ideas and insights with one another."   (Washington and Lee University)

Open Government Guide

"Comprehensive guide to open government laws in the 50 states and the District of Columbia... a collection of easy-to-maneuver outlines addressing key components of open records and open meetings laws." (Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press)

Overseas Press Club of America

"Seeks to maintain an international association of journalists working in the United States and abroad; to encourage the highest standards of professional integrity and skill in the reporting of news....

Parents Television Council

Watchdog group.

Peabody Awards

Annual awards in broadcast journalism.  Includes a lengthy list of winners.

Pew Internet and American Life Project

"Produces reports that explore the impact of the internet on families, communities, work and home, daily life, education, health care, and civic and political life."

Pew Research Center for People and the Press

"Independent opinion research group that studies attitudes toward the press, politics and public policy issues. We are best known for regular national surveys that measure public attentiveness to major news stories, and for our polling that charts trends in values and fundamental political and social attitudes."

Pew Research Center Reports on the News Media

This is a collection of dozens of reports from 2005-to-date on the news media.  Note: The Pew Research Center actually is separate from the Pew Research Center for People and the Press.

Photojournalism on the Web

Compilation on resources, from the Association of College and Research Libraries.

Photos on the Web

Guide to issues and use.  (Consumers Union)

Pictures of the Year

Annual compilation of award-winning photography, from the University of Missouri School of Journalism.


"Joint initiative from the LSE [London School of Economics] and the London College of Communication aimed at working journalists, people in public life and students in the UK and around the world."

Poynter Institute

Prominenbt "school for journalists, future journalists, and teachers of journalists."   Web site is rich in research resources.

Press Freedoms Around the World

Leyburn Library page containing links to important sources of information on mass media freedoms in various countries.

PressThink; Ghost of Democracy in the Media Machine

Jay Rosen's (New York University journalism professor) blog, dealing with the press and free expression in the age of the Internet.

Privacy International

"Human rights group formed in 1990 as a watchdog on surveillance and privacy invasions by governments and corporations."   Includes Silencing Sources: An International Survey of Protections and Threats to Journalists’ Sources.

Program for the Study of Media and Health

Kaiser Family Foundation project studies the "relationship between entertainment media and health, with a special focus on children and media," incuding video games, sex on television, etc.

Project for Excellence in Journalism

This Journalism.org site is a project of the PEJ and the Committee of Concerned Journalists. It includes: the Daily Briefing, a digest of news about the media' the News Index, a weekly content analysis of U.S. news sources; and the New Media Index, a weekly report " that captures the leading commentary of blogs and social media sites focused on news and compares those subjects to that of the mainstream press."


"Independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest. Our work focuses exclusively on truly important stories, stories with 'moral force.'”

Public Broadcasting Service

"Media enterprise that serves 355 public noncommercial television stations and reaches nearly 73 million people each week through on-air and online content."

Public Opinion Surveys -- Online Sources

A selection of sources available to W&L students and faculty.

Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting

"Innovative non-profit leader in supporting the independent international journalism that U.S. media organizations are increasingly less willing to undertake. The Center focuses on under-reported topics, promoting high-quality international reporting and creating platforms that reach broad and diverse audiences."

Pulitzer Prizes

Annual awards for journalism, letters, drama, and music.

Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty

U.S. Federal Government foreign broadcasting service with a mission to "promote democratic values and institutions by disseminating factual information and ideas."


Links to over 10,000 radio station Web sites around the world, many of which have audio links.

Regret the Error

Web site which "reports on corrections, retractions, clarifications and trends regarding accuracy and honesty in the media."


Intended to help print and broadcast journalists when they encounter religion in stories about government, politics, education, social services, science and other areas of public life.   Includes Reporting on Religion 2    (Religion Newswriters Association)

Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

"A major national -- and international -- resource in free speech issues, disseminating information in a variety of forms, including a quarterly legal review, a bi-weekly newsletter, a 24-hour hotline, and various handbooks on media law issues."

Reporters Without Borders

Based in France, this is a professional association which monitors and defends press freedom throughout the world.

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism

Based in the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Oxford and focusing on the interntional comparative study of journalism.

The Revealer

"A daily review of religion and the press."  Criticism and analysis of the media's coverage of religion. From New York University.

Romensko's MediaNews

News about events and people in the mass media.

Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism

"The nation’s first and only investigative reporting center based at a university, was launched in September 2004 to help fill the void in high-quality public interest and investigative journalism—and to counter the increasing corporate control of what Americans read, see, and hear."   (Brandeis University)

The Source; Newspapers by the Numbers

"Facts and statistics" on the newspaper industry (circulation, readership, markets, etc.), from the Newspaper Association of America.


Business consulting organization focusing on digital media.

State of the News Media

"Annual report on American journalism," from Journalism.org.

Student Press Law Center

"Devoted exclusively to educating high school and college journalists about the rights and responsibilities embodied in the First Amendment and supporting the student news media in their struggle to cover important issues free from censorship. The Center provides free legal advice and information as well as low-cost educational materials for student journalists on a wide variety of legal topics."

Television Bureau of Advertising

See the "Research Central" and "Business Data Bank" options for data on media trends and other topics.

Television Quarterly

Archive of articles (2004- ) in this publication from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.

Tyndall Report

"Monitors the television networks' weekday newscasts" to "measure the time devoted to each story in minutes."


"News about the news."


News about television.


Resources for and from college journalists, including articles from campus newspapers. Provided by Northwestern's Medill School of Journalism.

Undercover Journalism: Deception for Journalism's Sake

Collects decades of "high-impact, sometimes controversial, mostly U.S.-generated journalism that used undercover techniques. It grows out of the research" for the 2012 book Undercover Reporting , which "argues that much of the valuable journalism since before the U.S. Civil War has emerged from investigations that employed subterfuge to expose wrong."

Vanderbilt Television News Archive

Information about the Archive, which maintains video copies of thousands of hours of TV news programming. Available here is an index (with abstracts) of TV news broadcasts in recent years. You must register.

Violence in the Media; A Reference Handbook

Overview of issues, impact, controversies, and consequences of depictions of violence in the mass media, with a focus on television.

Virginia Freedom of Information Advisory Council

Body is "a state agency, is an office with the expertise to help resolve disputes over Freedom of Information issues. The FOIA Council answers questions from private citizens, state and local public officials, and the media about access to public records and meetings."

Voice of America Pronunication Guide

The VOA's official guidelines for pronunciations of names in the news.

Who Owns What

Media corporate ownership database, from the Columbia Journalism Review.

Women's Media Center

"Works with the media to ensure that women’s stories are told and women’s voices are heard. We do this in the following ways: media advocacy campaigns, media monitoring for sexism, creating original content, and training women and girls to participate in media. We are directly engaged with the media at all levels to ensure that a diverse group of women is present in newsrooms, on air, in print and online, in film, entertainment, and theater, as sources and subjects."

Woodward and Bernstein Watergate Papers

Public access to reporters' Woodward and Bernstein's notes, drafts, and other materials from the original Watergate investigation and subsequent writings. (University of Texas)

World News Forecast

News associated with upcoming events around the world.

World Press Trends

Annually-published compilation of information on newspapers in each country of the world.   (World Association of Newspapers)